This video explores what virus the flu is and briefly explains how the virus mutates every year causing epidemiologists to approximate which strains will be present in any given flu season. It outlines the current flu vaccine options available, including the trivalent/quadrivalent inactivated vaccine as well the live, attenuated vaccine. Lastly, it highlights the universal flu vaccine, which has the ability to protect individuals from many strains of influenza virus while providing long-term immunity. The Jenner Institute at the University of Oxford and Vaccitech are in progress for a human clinical trial of their universal flu vaccine coined MVA-NP+M1.

[Information about influenza (flu) from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)]

[Please complete our feedback form]

  • Berlanda Scorza, F., Tsvetnitsky, V., & Donnelly, J. J. (2016). Universal influenza vaccines: Shifting to better vaccines. Vaccine, 34(26), 2926–2933.
  • Tisa, V., Barberis, I., Faccio, V., Paganino, C., Trucchi, C., Martini, M., & Ansaldi, F. (2016). Quadrivalent influenza vaccine: a new opportunity to reduce the influenza burden. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene, 57(1), E28–E33.
  • Flannery, B., Chung, J.R., Belongia EA, et al. Interim Estimates of 2017–18 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness — United States, February 2018. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). 2018;67:180–185.
  • Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV) Nasal Spray. (2017). Health and Social Services, Government of the Northwest Territories.
  • World-first trial for universal flu vaccine. (2017). Oxford University.
  • Miller, M. S., Gardner, T. J., Krammer, F., Aguado, L. C., Tortorella, D., Basler, C. F., & Palese, P. (2013). Neutralizing antibodies against previously-encountered influenza virus strains increase over time: A longitudinal analysis. Science Translational Medicine, 5(198),