Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes motor neuron death leading to paralysis and death during midlife. In ALS patients, the brain can no longer properly send signals through the motor neurons to control the muscles, making it difficult for a person the talk, swallow, and breathe. The average life expectancy of ALS patients ranges from 2 to 5 years. However, there are exceptions to this, as demonstrated by Stephen Hawking who lived for 55 years following his diagnosis with ALS. This video identifies what ALS is and the key molecular targets for therapy to delay its progression. Primarily, it focuses on the pathogenic mechanisms behind ALS and examines the currently approved drug therapies, specifically riluzole and edaravone.