Demystifying Medicine Video



This video analyzes the claim that dark chocolate is beneficial for human health. It looks at how chocolate is classified as dark and how it is produced. Then it identifies the key compound in dark chocolate: flavanol. Lastly, it examines the effect of dark chocolate on cardiovascular health, obesity, dental health and dermal health based on scientific literature.

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References
  • Alañón, M. E., Castle, S. M., Siswanto, P. J., Cifuentes-Gómez, T., & Spencer, J. P. E. (2016). Assessment of flavanol stereoisomers and caffeine and theobromine content in commercial chocolates. Food Chemistry, 208, 177-184.
  • Almoosawi, S., Fyfe, L., Ho, C., & Al-Dujaili, E. (2010). The effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate on fasting capillary whole blood glucose, total cholesterol, blood pressure and glucocorticoids in healthy overweight and obese subjects. British Journal of Nutrition, 103(6), 842-850.
  • Andújar, I., Recio, M. C., Giner, R. M., & Ríos, J. L. (2012). Cocoa polyphenols and their potential benefits for human health. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2012.
  • Buitrago-Lopez, A., Sanderson, J., Johnson, L., Warnakula, S., Wood, A., Di Angelantonio, E., & Franco, O. H. (2011). Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ, 343, d4488.
  • Di Renzo, L., Rizzo, M., Sarlo, F., Colica, C., Iacopino, L., Domino, E., ... & De Lorenzo, A. (2013). Effects of dark chocolate in a population of normal weight obese women: a pilot study. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 17(16), 2257-2266.
  • Engler, M. B., & Engler, M. M. (2006). The emerging role of flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate in cardiovascular health and disease. Nutrition Reviews, 64(3), 109-18.
  • Engler, M.B., Engler, M.M., Chen, C.Y., Malloy, M.J., Browne, A., Chiu, E.Y. … Miletus-Snyder, M.L. (2004). Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 23(3), 197-204.
  • Erdman Jr, J. W., Carson, L., Kwik-Uribe, C., Evans, E. M., & Allen, R. R. (2008). Effects of cocoa flavanols on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 17(S1), 284-287.
  • Farhat, G., Drummond, S., Fyfe, L., & Al‚ÄźDujaili, E. A. (2014). Dark chocolate: an obesity paradox or a culprit for weight gain? Phytotherapy Research, 28(6), 791-797.
  • Ferrazzano, G. F., Amato, I., Ingenito, A., De Natale, A., & Pollio, A. (2009). Anti-cariogenic effects of polyphenols from plant stimulant beverages (cocoa, coffee, tea). Fitoterapia, 80(5), 255-262.
  • Heinrich, U., Neukam, K., Tronnier, H., Sies, H., & Stahl, W. (2006). Long-term ingestion of high flavanol cocoa provides photoprotection against UV-induced erythema and improves skin condition in women. The Journal of Nutrition, 136(6), 1565-1569.
  • Neukam, K., Stahl, W., Tronnier, H., Sies, H., & Heinrich, U. (2007). Consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa acutely increases microcirculation in human skin. European Journal of Nutrition, 46(1), 53-56.
  • Scapagnini, G., Davinelli, S., Di Renzo, L., De Lorenzo, A., Olarte, H. H., Micali, G., ... & Gonzalez, S. (2014). Cocoa bioactive compounds: significance and potential for the maintenance of skin health. Nutrients, 6(8), 3202-3213.
  • Williams, S., Tamburic, S., & Lally, C. (2009). Eating chocolate can significantly protect the skin from UV light. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 8(3), 169-173.